X-Ray Data Booklet


Gwyn P. Williams

Table 1-1 gives the electron binding energies for the elements in their natural forms. A PDF version of this table is also available. The energies are given in electron volts relative to the vacuum level for the rare gases and for H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2; relative to the Fermi level for the metals; and relative to the top of the valence bands for semiconductors. Values have been taken from Ref. 1 except as follows:

*Values taken from Ref. 2, with additional corrections

Values taken from Ref. 3.

aOne-particle approximation not valid owing to short core-hole lifetime.

bValue derived from Ref. 1.

Thanks also to R. Johnson, G. Ice, M. Olmstead, P. Dowben, M. Seah, E. Gullikson, F. Boscherini, W. O’Brien, R. Alkire, and others.


1.      J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, “Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 39, 125 (1967).

2.      M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978).

3.      J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, “Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 21, 275 (1980).


Elements Hydrogen (1) to Ag (47)

Elements Cadmium (48) to Ytterbium(70)

Elements Lutetium (71) to Uranium (92)